Gonzales v. O Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal, is a case decided by the United States Supreme Court involving the Federal Government's seizure of a sacramental tea, containing a Schedule I substance, from a New Mexican branch of the Brazilian church União do Vegetal (UDV). The church sued, claiming the seizure was illegal, and sought to ensure future importation of the tea for religious use. The Supreme Court found that the Government failed to meet its burden under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act that barring the substance served a compelling government interest.
Gonzales v. Raich (2005), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled on June 6, 2005 that under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which allows the United States Congress "To regulate Commerce ... among the several States," Congress may ban the use of cannabis even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. The marijuana plants were illegal schedule one drugs under the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA).